The Micheli Guide to Fungal Conservation

Fungi need protection just as much as animals and plants. If your country signed up to the Rio Convention [CBD] then your government has promised to deliver that protection. The Micheli Guide to Fungal Conservation tells you how well your government is living up to that promise.

View by country. Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Denmark [Greenland], Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, FYROM [Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia], Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guyana, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Ireland, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

View by evaluation. Good, Adequate, Nearly adequate, Poor, Deficient, Seriously deficient, Totally deficient.

How the guide works. Countries which have signed up to the CBD produce national action plans and reports saying in their own words what they are doing to protect nature. The Micheli Guide uses a few simple objective criteria to evaluate those documents from the point of view of fungi. The aim is to applaud governments which are achieving excellence in fungal conservation, and encourage improvement in those which are not. The evaluation has two parts. The first determines if an action plan or report is adequate for the purpose of fungal conservation. To pass this first stage, five criteria for adequacy must be met. Inadequate action plans and reports get a sad-faced emoticon for each criterion they fail to satisfy.

The five criteria for adequacy

Fungi mentioned in a conservation context (e.g. mention purely as an exploitable resource and mention of fungicides etc. does not count).

Fungi clearly, consistently and explicitly recognized as different from animals, micro-organisms and plants, and lichens recognized as fungi.

Strategic consideration explicitly given to fungal conservation (example indicators: separate texts devoted to fungal conservation; lists of important fungus areas / fungal biodiversity hotspots; deficiencies in legal protection for fungi identified and plans present to rectify those deficiencies; threats to fungi identified; fungal red lists mentioned).

Principal fungal habitats and roles taken into account (decomposers, dung fungi, endobionts, freshwater fungi, fungi on man-made products, fungi on naturally occurring inanimate substrata, lichen-forming fungi, marine fungi, mycorrhizal fungi, parasitic fungi).

Knowledge gap for fungi recognized and plans present to address the problem.

 

 

Documents which are adequate are then eligible to enter the second part of the evaluation. If successful, they are rated as "Good", and a gold coloured star is placed against the evaluation on this website. To achieve the "Good" rating, the document needs to contain: at least one separate section explicitly devoted to fungi; a list of important fungus areas / fungal biodiversity hotspots; a review of the country’s legal protection for fungi (including plans to rectify any deficiencies); consideration of all of the following fungal habitats / roles present in the country: decomposers, dung fungi, endobionts, freshwater fungi, fungi on man-made products (agents of biodegradation and biodeterioration), fungi on naturally occurring inanimate substrata (peat, rock, soil etc.), lichen-forming fungi, marine fungi, mycorrhizal fungi, parasitic fungi (agents of animal diseases, fungicolous fungi, plant pathogens).

To date every document examined has failed to satisfy at least one of the five criteria for adequacy. There have thus been no action plans or reports eligible to be considered for the "Good" rating. When, as is hoped, adequate action plans and reports are encountered, further criteria will be introduced to distinguish excellent reports from those which are merely good.

Pier Antonio Micheli
This guide to fungal conservation is named in honour of Pier Antonio Micheli (1679-1737), an Italian who was one of the earliest scientists to study fungi, and discovered that fungi produce spores.

About the guide. Countries which have signed up to the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity [CBD] prepare national biodiversity action plans and reports. Most countries have published several. There are already more than one thousand, and they are openly available on the Internet [CBD National Action Plans and Reports]. Fungi form a major part of the biodiversity of every country of the world. The action plans and reports therefore need to be checked to make sure that fungi are getting proper recognition as part of each nation’s biodiversity, and that the conservation needs of fungi are being taken addressed. You can help. To date, only a few of the action plans and reports have been evaluated. Please download an evaluation form and contribute an assessment. To help make the evaluation, you can also download an example of a completed form.

Commentary

This rating system is a blunt tool. It makes no effort, for example, to evaluate coverage of chromistan and protozoan fungal analogues, nor does it evaluate any proposed actions for fungi: it simply notes whether or not they exist. The review is, nevertheless, very revealing. Of 124 documents evaluated, only three could be described as doing anything positive at all for conservation of fungi in their countries and, in every one of them, there was room for improvement. Well over half of the reports mentioned fungi but did not clearly recognize them as belonging in a separate biological kingdom. Thirty reports (almost a quarter of all evaluated) failed to mention fungi at all.

From a fungal perspective, there is clearly an enormous need for countries to "clean up their act" in respect of fungal conservation. It is, for example, deeply depressing that a country such as Australia, which takes pride in its efforts to protect its biodiversity, can issue a twenty-year biodiversity conservation strategy where the only mention of fungi is in the caption of a single illustration. The situation is not, however, totally hopeless. Although no document was evaluated as adequate, the review shows that some countries are producing action plans and reports which could, with a little more effort, achieve the basic level necessary for fungal conservation. Reports from three countries were evaluated as Nearly adequate - the best among those reviewed to date, and another five reports received only two sad-faced emoticons. The countries responsible for all of the other action plans and reports reviewed received at least three sad-faced emoticons, and were therefore Deficient, Seriously deficient or Totally deficient.

This review has looked predominantly at those action plans and reports which were submitted after February 2010. A very small number of action plans and reports from that period have not yet been evaluated (China, Kuwait, Libya, Montenegro, Qatar, Saudi Arabia). There are many earlier reports from many other countries available from the same website. Members of the ISFC are encouraged to visit the CBD website, and study the action plans and reports of their own and other countries. In the cases of action plans and reports which do not mention fungi, or where coverage is poor, Members may wish to encourage and help those responsible for the documents to introduce or improve the mycological aspects. To do that, it is necessary to establish a dialogue. A good place to start is the National CBD Focal Point Contact for the country. The CBD website includes a list of names, addresses and e-mail addresses of those national focal point contacts.

Suggestions for improving the rating system used here would be appreciated, as would evaluations of other national action plans and reports from a fungal perspective using the same criteria. Please send any such suggestions or evaluations to the Dr A. Abdel-Azeem [e-mail: zemo3000<at>yahoo.com] or Dr D.W. Minter [e-mail: d.minter<at>cabi.org], who maintain this web page. As new action plans and reports are submitted, they will be reviewed and added to this website. Monitoring the ratings for individual countries could be used to show whether or not change (and hopefully improvement) is occurring in coverage of the fungi.


List of action plans and reports arranged by country

Albania

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 31 March 2011. Received by CBD. 1 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times, but status not clear (mentioned once in context of flora), lichen (mentioned 1 time); lichen-forming fungi treated as separate from fungi; no evidence of separate planning.

Antigua and Barbuda

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. March 2010. Received by CBD. 6 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, as micro-organisms.

Argentina

Cuarto Informe Nacional. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 20 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichen-forming fungi mentioned five times.

Australia

Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 26 January 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, only as caption of one illustration.

Austria

Fourth National Report. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 21 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 13 times, plus mycete (mentioned 3 times); fungi generally but not consistently distinguished from plants, lichens (mentioned 9 times) listed as plants. Knowledge gap for fungi acknowledged and some plans in place to resolve problem.

First Austrian National Report on the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. June 1997. Received by CBD. 24 September 1997. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times plus mushroom (mentioned once); treated separately from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned twice) not integrated with fungi.

Azerbaijan

Country Study on Biodiversity of Azerbaijan Republic. Fourth National Report to Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 24 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 12 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once), plus truffle (mentioned once), plus mycete (mentioned twice, once as “myxomycetes”); clearly and consistently distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned once, as "lower plants".

Bahamas

Fourth National Biodiversity Report of the Bahamas to the UNCBD. Language. English. Date on report. June 2011. Received by CBD. 11 August 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned one time, as a disease threat to agricultural ecosystems.

Bahrain

The Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. Arabic. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 17 March 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Bangladesh

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4. Language. English. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 20 April 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times, plus truffle (mentioned once). Fungi mentioned 4 times (once in title of bibliographic citation), listed as plants; lichens mentioned once, separately from fungi, listed as plants.

Belarus

Strategy on conservation and sustainable utilization of biological diversity for 2011-2020. Language. English. Date on report. 11 November 2010. Received by CBD. 6 January 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned. Separate status of mushrooms (2 mentions) not explicit and lichens (1 mention) treated as "lower plants".

Belgium

Fourth National Report of Belgium to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 5 October 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned (including lichens) mentioned 18 times; treated as plants; some recognition of knowledge gap, but no plans to address the problem.

Belize

4th National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. May 2010. Received by CBD. 10 August 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Bhutan

Biodiversity Action Plan 2009. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 4 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times (all in the context of the Cordyceps medicinal caterpillar fungus), and treated as plants; mushrooms mentioned 9 times; lichens mentioned once.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Action Plan for Biodiversity and Landscape's Protection (NBSAP BiH 2008-2015). Language. English. Date on report. January 2008. Received by CBD. 15 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 37 times plus lichen (mentioned 13 times), mushroom (mentioned 3 times), mycete (mentioned 3 times), truffle (mentioned once); lichen-forming species recognized as fungi and well-integrated; fungi recognized as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants; clearly taken into account in planning; some recognition of different fungal categories present, but incomplete.

Fourth Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010 Biodiversity Targets Assessments. Language. English. Date on report. April 2010. Received by CBD. 16 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once), plus mycete (mentioned once), plus lichen (mentioned once); fungi clearly distinguished as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Botswana

Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Part 1, Part 2, Part 3. Language. English. Date on report. February 2007. Received by CBD. 14 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times, plus truffle (mentioned once). Fungi generally distinguished as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants; some recognition of knowledge gap.

Brazil

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English, Portuguese. Date on report. October 2010. Received by CBD. 9 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 13 times; fungi generally recognized as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but included in a "flora"; lichen-forming fungi not mentioned.

Brunei

4th National Report. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 11 August 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, and recognized as distinct, but not consistently; some recognition of knowledge gap for fungi.

Bulgaria

Fourth National Report 2005-2008. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 15 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 18 times, plus mushroom (mentioned twice); fungi not consistently distinguished from plants, lichens (mentioned 3 times) listed as plants. Fungi explicitly included in national red listing. Need to improve informational resources about fungi acknowledged.

Burkina Faso

Convention sur la Diversité Biologique. Quatrième Report National. Language. French. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 16 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 5 times, plus mycete (mentioned once, as part of title in bibliographic list); sometimes treated as micro-organisms, sometimes as plants.

Central African Republic

4ème Rapport National à la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 7 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times, all in the context of exploitable resources.

Chad

4ème Rapport National sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. October 2009. Received by CBD. 8 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mycete (mentioned once), sometimes confused with plants; lichens mentioned twice, listed separately from fungi, sometimes confused with plants. Some recognition of knowledge gap for fungi.

Colombia

Cuarto Informe Nacional ante el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 15 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (in the context of agents of biological control), lichen (mentioned once, in title of bibliographic citation).

Cook Islands

Cook Islands 4th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 8 April 2011. Received by CBD. 14 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice (as component of plant kingdom).

Croatia

Strategy and Action Plan for the Protection of Biological and Landscape Diversity of the Republic of Croatia. Language. English. Date on report. 28 November 2008. Received by CBD. 16 June 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 9 times and clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (reference to red lists and legal protection; some planning for sustainable use of fungi).

Cyprus

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 7 September 2010. Notes. Mushrooms (mentioned twice); lichens (mentioned 3 times) listed under flora. Some recognition of knowledge gap.

Czech Republic

Fourth National Report of the Czech Republic to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 6 May 2009. Received by CBD. 7 May 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times; mostly treated as plants; some minimal recognition of threats and need for protection, but no plans to deal with them.

Denmark

Fourth Country Report to CBD, Denmark. Language. English. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 12 February 2010. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 21 times; generally recognized as distinct, but sometimes listed as plants; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (some recognition of threats); some fungal habitats recognized; some recognition of the knowledge gap.

Denmark [Greenland]

Fourth National Report on the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity of Greenland. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 12 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once.

Dominican Republic

Cuarto Informe Nacional de Biodiversidad. República Dominicana. Language. Spanish. Date on report. February 2010. Received by CBD. 17 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times; listed as plants; lichens mentioned 7 times, listed separately from fungi, also as plants.

Ecuador

Cuarto Informe Nacional para el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 31 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times (once with an unsubstantiated claim that their levels of endemism are lower in the Galapagos Islands, once in the context of animal disease), confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 7 times, listed as plants, separately from fungi.

Tercer Informe Nacional para el Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. May 2009. Received by CBD. 17 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice (once as disease agents); lichens mentioned twice, separately from fungi, as plants.

Segundo Informe Nacional para el Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. March 2009. Received by CBD. 17 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichens mentioned once, separately from fungi.

El Salvador

Cuarto Informe al Convenio Sobre Diversidad Biológica El Salvador. Language. Spanish. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 30 March 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichen mentioned twice; separate status of fungi not explicit (animal and plant diversity each got their own whole section); lichens treated separately from fungi and as part of plant kingdom.

Estonia

IV National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Estonia. Language. English. Date on report. 2008. Received by CBD. 5 December 2008. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 20 times and recognized as distinct from animals, micro-organisms, plants and from each other; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (fungal and lichen red lists mentioned).

European Union

Fourth National Report of the European Community to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. May 2009. Received by CBD. 15 May 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice; no evidence of awareness that they might be different from animals or plants; no consideration of red lists, threats or fungal habitats; no acknowledgement of knowledge gap.

Fiji

Fiji’s Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 31 May 2010. Received by CBD. 8 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice; treated as plants.

Finland

Fourth National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Finland. Language. English. Date on report. 24 June 2009. Received by CBD. 24 June 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 90 times; consistently distinguished from plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); lichens consistently recognized as fungi; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (frequent mention of red lists and some other tools); some fungal habitats recognized; knowledge gap acknowledged and some plans in place to deal with the problem.

National Action Plan for Biodiversity in Finland, 1997-2005. Language. English. Date on report. 29 December 1997. Received by CBD. 29 December 1997. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times; clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 3 times.

France

National Biodiversity Strategy 2011-2020. Languages. English, French. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 20 May 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, but separate status of fungi not explicit.

FYROM [Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia]

Four National Report of the Implementation of CBD in Republic of Macedonia (2006-2008). Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 26 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice; lichen mentioned once, separately from fungi; both listed separately from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Georgia

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity: Georgia. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 30 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, plus mushroom (mentioned twice), listed as plants; lichens mentioned twice, listed separately from fungi, also as plants.

Third National Report of Georgia to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 6 May 2010. Received by CBD. 7 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 5 times (twice in the context of quarantine or disease control), listed as “lower plants”; lichens mentioned three times, listed separately from fungi, also as “lower plants”. Knowledge gap acknowledged for lichens. Cybertruffle website cited.

Second National Report of Georgia to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 6 May 2010. Received by CBD. 7 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mushroom (mentioned once); lichens mentioned once, listed separately from fungi; fungi and lichens distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants. Assistance from the European Mycological Association and European Council for Conservation of Fungi acknowledged.

Germany

Fourth National Report under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 30 March 2010. Received by CBD. 30 April 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times; distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants (but also listed in context of flora). Knowledge gap acknowledged for fungi.

Greece

Untitled. Language. English. Date on report. 7 April 2008. Received by CBD. 8 April 2008. Notes. Lichens mentioned once; no indication of any understanding of their status.

Guyana

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 22 December 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times, plus lichen (mentioned once); lichen-forming species recognized as fungi; fungi recognized as separate from animals micro-organisms and and plants.

Guyana's Third National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2004-2006. Received by CBD. 19 May 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, but separate status of fungi not explicit.

Guyana's Second National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 1999-2003. Received by CBD. 19 May 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Hungary

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Hungary. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 8 June 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 6 times, and clearly and consistently distinguished from animals and plants, but also treated as distinct from each other.

Iceland

Second National Report of Iceland to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 10 March 2003. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Iraq

Iraqi Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 27 July 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Ireland

Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016. Ireland's National Biodiversity Plan. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 17 January 2012. Notes. Fungi and lichens each mentioned once, distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but listed separately from each other; a lichen red list in preparation for Ireland mentioned.

4th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 14 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 21 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once); generally distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 17 times; also generally distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but listed separately from fungi. A lichen red list in preparation for Ireland is mentioned.

Islamic Republic of Iran

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. October 2010. Received by CBD. 14 June 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned; fungicides mentioned once.

Israel

Israel’s National Biodiversity Plan. Language. English, Hebrew. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 31 March 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Italy

La Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità. Language. Italian. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 22 December 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, plus lichen (mentioned 3 times); lichen-forming species listed separately from fungi, and both included in "flora".

Jamaica

Third National Report for Jamaica. 2003-2004. Language. English. Date on report. December 2009. Received by CBD. 17 May 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Kazakhstan

The Fourth National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English, Russian. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 8 July 2010. Notes. Mushrooms mentioned 4 times, treated as plants; lichens (mentioned 4 times), also treated as plants; 16 fungi (13 of them lichen-forming) included in plant red list.

Kuwait

The National Biodiversity Strategy for the State of Kuwait. Language. Arabic, English. Date on report. 1998. Received by CBD. 6 June 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Laos

NBSAP Assessment: an assessment of the Lao PDR’s National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and Action Plan to 2010. Language. English. Date on report. 2011. Received by CBD. 25 September 2012. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 11 September 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and Action Plan to 2010. Language. English. Date on report. 2004. Received by CBD. 17 January 2006. Notes. Fungi mentioned very generally four times (twice as fungi, twice as mushrooms), and confused with plants.

Latvia

4th National Report to the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 24 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 5 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once); clearly and consistently distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 5 times, as plants.

Liberia

Liberia’s Fourth National Report. Language. English. Date on report. None noted. Received by CBD. 9 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Liechtenstein

4th National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Language. English. Date on report. December 2009. Received by CBD. 10 March 2010. Notes. Mushrooms mentioned 3 times; some evidence that they are considered separate from plants; some evidence that there is interest in their protection.

Lithuania

Fourth National Report of the Republic of Lithuania to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 23 October 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 95 times, and consistently treated as distinct from animals and plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); lichens mentioned and consistently treated as fungi; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (red listing for fungi mentioned, and some awareness of threats).

Luxembourg

Quatrième Rapport National de la Convention de la Diversité Biologique du Grand Duché de Luxembourg. Language. French. Date on report. November 2009. Received by CBD. 9 December 2009. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Malawi

Fourth Country Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Language. English. Date on report. 30 June 2010. Received by CBD. 3 September 2010. Notes. Mushrooms (mentioned 7 times), principally as an exploitable resource.

Maldives

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 27 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice.

Malta

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 2 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned once, listed as "lower plants".

Mauritania

Stratégie et Plan d'Action National sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. 1999. Received by CBD. 15 April 2000. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Mauritius

Fourth National Report on the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 13 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (in context of biological control).

Micronesia

Federated States of Micronesia Fourth National Report. Implementation of Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 22 June 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Moldova

Fourth National Report on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 16 June 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times (as “mushrooms”), largely in the context of harvesting, and treated as plants; lichens mentioned once, and treated as plants.

Monaco

Quatrième Rapport National de la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. 29 October 2009. Received by CBD. 30 October 2009. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Montenegro

Fourth National Report of Montenegro to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 25 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times plus mushroom (mentioned 3 times) plus mycete (mentioned 5 times); fungi generally clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants, although lichens (mentioned 4 times) sometimes listed with bryophytes. Important fungal areas mentioned. Legislation relating to fungal conservation mentioned.

Mozambique

4th National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. June 2009. Received by CBD. 14 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; treated as plants.

Namibia

Namibia’s Draft Fourth Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 15 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichens mentioned 12 times; sometimes treated as plants, treated alongside insects, arachnids, amphibians and reptiles.

Nepal

Nepal Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. March 2009. Received by CBD. 12 April 2012. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times; lichens mentioned 11 times; in every case treated as plants; conservation and documentation of lichens listed as one target, but no evidence of any activity to achieve that target.

Netherlands

Convention on Biological Diversity. Fourth National Report of the Netherlands. Language. English. Date on report. April 2010. Received by CBD. 14 April 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times (but only “macrofungi”), and listed as plants; lichens mentioned 3 times, separately from fungi, and also listed as plants.

New Zealand

New Zealand’s Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Reporting Period May 2005 - March 2009. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 10 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times (several times in the context of introduced diseases); not consistently treated as separate from plants; lichens mentioned once, separately from fungi; treated as plants.

Nicaragua

IV Informe Nacional al Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. 30 June 2010. Received by CBD. 3 September 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Nigeria

Fourth National Biodiversity Report. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 10 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mushroom (mentioned once); treated as plants; lichens mentioned once, treated separately from fungi, also as plants.

Norway

Untitled. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 24 April 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 11 times. Fungi mentioned, but only in the context of forest tree disease or (as “mushrooms”) in the context of sustainable harvesting; lichens mentioned in the context of pollution monitoring.

Oman

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. June 2010. Received by CBD. 26 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times; treated as plants.

Palau

Third National Report. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 10 February 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Panama

IV Informe Nacional de Panamá ante el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 3 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times; lichens mentioned 3 times; both listed as plants.

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea’s Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 21 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; treated as plants.

Poland

The National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 1 June 2009. Notes. Fungi and lichens mentioned; usually distinguished as separate, but sometimes treated as plants; some minimal consideration of threats; some awareness of the knowledge gap, and some minimal evidence of plans to address the problem.

Portugal

Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 29 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mushroom (once); lichen-forming fungi mentioned once, described as plants.

Romania

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 17 July 2009. Received by CBD. 5 October 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 5 times, but treated as plants.

Russia

[Fourth National Report. Conservation of Biological Diversity in the Russian Federation]. Language. Russian. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 9 November 2009. Notes. Fungi and lichens mentioned in total 28 times; listed separately from animals, plants and from each other.

St Lucia

St Lucia’s Fourth Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 26 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (as fungicide).

St Vincent and the Grenadines

The Fourth National Biodiversity Report of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to the UNCBD. Language. English. Date on report. March 2010. Received by CBD. 17 April 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Serbia

Biodiversity Strategy of the Republic of Serbia for the Period 2011-2018. Language. English. Date on report. 2011. Received by CBD. 16 March 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 17 times plus mycete (mentioned once), clearly recognized as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants, and lichens (mentioned 8 times) explicitly recognized as fungi; mushrooms (mentioned 4 times) considered as part of policy on foraging; truffles (mentioned once) considered as part of forest resources; some attention given to separate fungal categories; some attention given to dealing with knowledge gaps in fungi; fungi present on logo. [Top of page]

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 1 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 17 times, plus mushroom (once), plus mycete (once), clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned 7 times) listed closely to fungi. Some consideration given to legal aspects of fungal conservation. Some evidence of strategic planning for fungal conservation. [Top of page]

Third National Report of the Republic of Serbia to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 30 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Second National Report of the Republic of Serbia to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 30 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times, and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

First National Report of the Republic of Serbia to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 30 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned six times plus mycete (mentioned once), and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned 4 times) recognized as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but not listed with fungi.

Seychelles

Third National Report to the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Language. English. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 5 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (Verticillium also mentioned, as agent of disease), separately from animals and plants; lichens mentioned once, as plants.

Singapore

4th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 1 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times; lichen mentioned once. Fungi distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and (but not consistently) plants.

Slovakia

The Fourth National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Slovak Republic. Language. English. Date on report. March 2009. Received by CBD. 30 September 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 26 times, but treated as plants; some acknowledgement of knowledge gap, but not plans to address it.

Slovenia

Convention on Biological Diversity 4th National Report on implementation. Republic of Slovenia. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 7 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 9 times plus mycete (mentioned once), with some indication of being taken into account in plans, but status not clear (mentioned more than once as part of plant kingdom, and once as microbial life).

Solomon Islands

National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. June 2009. Received by CBD. 19 April 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Government of Solomon Islands Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2011. Received by CBD. 25 July 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Spain

Plan Estratégico del Patrimonio Natural y la Biodiversidad 2011-2017. Language. Spanish. Date on report. 30 September 2011. Received by CBD. 30 January 2012. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Sri Lanka

First National Report on the Implementation of Article 6 of the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 30 December 1997. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Suriname

National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) 2012-2016. Language. English. Date on report. February 2013. Received by CBD. 13 March 2013. Notes. Fungi twice and treated as different from animals and plants. View full Micheli Guide evaluation.

Sweden

Fourth National Report to the the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2 April 2009. Received by CBD. 8 April 2009. Notes. Fungi and lichens collectively mentioned 28 times. Fungi consistently treated as distinct from animals and plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); lichens treated separately from fungi; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (red lists mentioned, with some plans to address threats); some consideration of fungal habitats.

Switzerland

Swiss Biodiversity Strategy. Language. English. Date on report. 25 April 2012. Received by CBD. 2 May 2012. Notes. Fungi and lichens collectively mentioned 12 times; fungi treated as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens treated as distinct from fungi, micro-organisms and plants; existence of red lists for some fungi and for lichen-forming fungi provides some evidence of strategic consideration.

Switzerland’s Fourth National Report under the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 13 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 19 times, plus mushroom (3 times), treated as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned 16 times) treated as distinct from fungi, micro-organisms and plants. Existence of red lists for some fungi and for lichen-forming fungi provides some evidence of strategic consideration.

Tanzania

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. August 2001. Received by CBD. 12 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, plus mushroom (3 times); status of fungi confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichen-forming fungi not mentioned.

Fourth National Report on Implementation of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Language. English. Date on report. July 2009. Received by CBD. 6 March 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Tonga

Fourth Report. Review of Tonga National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 28 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times (once as undesirable disease, once as fungicide); treated as plants.

Trinidad and Tobago

Fourth National Report of Trinidad and Tobago to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 15 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (part of title of work in bibliographic reference about amphibian disease).

Turkey

UN Convention on Biological Diversity Fourth National Report. Language. English. Date on report. 30 June 2009. Received by CBD. 28 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichen-forming fungi mentioned three times, described as plants.

UK

Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity: United Kingdom. Language. English. Date on report. 18 May 2009. Received by CBD. 20 May 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 94 times, and generally recognized as distinct from animals and plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (red listing and threats mentioned); some fungal habitats mentioned; knowledge gap acknowledged, and some discussion of resources for dealing with the problem.

Biodiversity: the UK Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. January 1994. Received by CBD. 5 January 1998. Notes. This is the first national report for the UK. Fungi mentioned 18 times plus mushroom (mentioned once); generally treated as distinct from plants, but sometimes treated as micro-organisms; lichens (mentioned 14 times) not integrated with fungi; fungi (including lichen-forming species) clearly taken into account in planning; some recognition of different fungal categories present, but incomplete. [Top of page]

The United Kingdom National Report on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 16 January 1998. Notes. This is the first national report for the UK. Fungi mentioned 4 times; sometimes treated as micro-organisms; lichens (mentioned 7 times) treated as “lower plants” and not integrated with fungi.

Ukraine

[Convention of Biological Diversity. Fourth National Report of Ukraine]. Language. Russian. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 9 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 4 times, listed separately from fungi, confused with plants.

Third National Report. Language. English. Date on report. 25 April 2007. Received by CBD. 26 April 2007. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; treated as micro-organisms.

National Report of Ukraine on Conservation of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 1997. Received by CBD. 4 July 1997. Notes. Fungi mentioned 17 times plus mushroom (mentioned twice) plus mycete (mentioned twice, in context of myxomycetes); sometimes treated separately, sometimes treated as plants, and sometimes as micro-organisms; lichens (mentioned 6 times) treated as plants and not integrated with fungi.

Uruguay

IV Informe Nacional al Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 13 September 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Venezuela

Cuarto Informe Nacional Convenio de Diversidad Biológica de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Language. Spanish. Date on report. February 2011. Received by CBD. 8 April 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Estrategia Nacional para la Conservación de la Diversidad Biológica de la República Boliveriana de Venezuela. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 1 April 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned. [Top of page]

Zambia

Fourth National Report. Language. Spanish. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 17 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, as plants.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe’s Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. December 2010. Received by CBD. 16 December 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned; mushrooms mentioned 3 times, but treated as plants. [Top of page]


List of action plans and reports arranged by evaluation

Good

Description of category. Action plans and reports which not only cover the fungal dimension of biodiversity adequately, but also have some additional aspects singling them out as examples of best practice. Comment. None of the reports evaluated to date merit this category. [Top of page]

Adequate

Description of category. Action plans and reports which cover the fungal dimension of biodiversity adequately. Comment. None of the reports evaluated to date merit this category. [Top of page]

Nearly adequate

Description of category. Action plans and reports which mention fungi, recognize that they are distinct, and satisfy two of the remaining criteria (recognize and plan to address the knowledge gap for fungi; take into account habitats which are specifically fungal in character; or give some strategic consideration to fungal conservation). Comment. Only three reports have so far been evaluated in this category.

Finland. Fourth National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Finland. Language. English. Date on report. 24 June 2009. Received by CBD. 24 June 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 90 times; consistently distinguished from plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); lichens consistently recognized as fungi; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (frequent mention of red lists and some other tools); some fungal habitats recognized; knowledge gap acknowledged and some plans in place to deal with the problem.

Serbia. Biodiversity Strategy of the Republic of Serbia for the Period 2011-2018. Language. English. Date on report. 2011. Received by CBD. 16 March 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 17 times plus mycete (mentioned once), clearly recognized as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants, and lichens (mentioned 8 times) explicitly recognized as fungi; mushrooms (mentioned 4 times) considered as part of policy on foraging; truffles (mentioned once) considered as part of forest resources; some attention given to separate fungal categories; some attention given to dealing with knowledge gaps in fungi; fungi present on logo. [Top of page]

UK. Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity: United Kingdom. Language. English. Date on report. 18 May 2009. Received by CBD. 20 May 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 94 times, and generally recognized as distinct from animals and plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (red listing and threats mentioned); some fungal habitats mentioned; knowledge gap acknowledged, and some discussion of resources for dealing with the problem.

Poor

Description of category. Action plans and reports which mention fungi, recognize that they are distinct, and either recognize and plan to address the knowledge gap for fungi, or take into account habitats which are specifically fungal in character, or give some strategic consideration to fungal conservation. Comment. Only five reports have so far achieved even this level.

Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Action Plan for Biodiversity and Landscape's Protection (NBSAP BiH 2008-2015). Language. English. Date on report. January 2008. Received by CBD. 15 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 37 times plus lichen (mentioned 13 times), mushroom (mentioned 3 times), mycete (mentioned 3 times), truffle (mentioned once); lichen-forming species recognized as fungi and well-integrated; fungi recognized as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants; clearly taken into account in planning; some recognition of different fungal categories present, but incomplete.

Croatia. Strategy and Action Plan for the Protection of Biological and Landscape Diversity of the Republic of Croatia. Language. English. Date on report. 28 November 2008. Received by CBD. 16 June 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 9 times and clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (reference to red lists and legal protection; some planning for sustainable use of fungi).

Lithuania. Fourth National Report of the Republic of Lithuania to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 23 October 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 95 times, and consistently treated as distinct from animals and plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); lichens mentioned and consistently treated as fungi; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (red listing for fungi mentioned, and some awareness of threats).

Serbia. Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 1 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 17 times, plus mushroom (once), plus mycete (once), clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned 7 times) listed closely to fungi. Some consideration given to legal aspects of fungal conservation. Some evidence of strategic planning for fungal conservation. [Top of page]

Sweden. Fourth National Report to the the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2 April 2009. Received by CBD. 8 April 2009. Notes. Fungi and lichens collectively mentioned 28 times. Fungi consistently treated as distinct from animals and plants (although included in the country’s contribution to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation); lichens treated separately from fungi; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (red lists mentioned, with some plans to address threats); some consideration of fungal habitats.

Deficient

Description of category. Deficient action plans and reports which usually mention fungi and recognize that they are distinct, but then totally fail to deal with them. Comment. Twenty-six reports (just under 20% of all reports evaluated) have received this category.

Austria. Fourth National Report. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 21 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 13 times, plus mycete (mentioned 3 times); fungi generally but not consistently distinguished from plants, lichens (mentioned 9 times) listed as plants. Knowledge gap for fungi acknowledged and some plans in place to resolve problem.

Austria. First Austrian National Report on the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. June 1997. Received by CBD. 24 September 1997. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times plus mushroom (mentioned once); treated separately from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned twice) not integrated with fungi.

Azerbaijan. Country Study on Biodiversity of Azerbaijan Republic. Fourth National Report to Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 24 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 12 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once), plus truffle (mentioned once), plus mycete (mentioned twice, once as “myxomycetes”); clearly and consistently distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned once, as "lower plants".

Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fourth Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010 Biodiversity Targets Assessments. Language. English. Date on report. April 2010. Received by CBD. 16 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once), plus mycete (mentioned once), plus lichen (mentioned once); fungi clearly distinguished as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Botswana. Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Part 1, Part 2, Part 3. Language. English. Date on report. February 2007. Received by CBD. 14 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times, plus truffle (mentioned once). Fungi generally distinguished as separate from animals, micro-organisms and plants; some recognition of knowledge gap.

Brazil. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English, Portuguese. Date on report. October 2010. Received by CBD. 9 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 13 times; fungi generally recognized as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but included in a "flora"; lichen-forming fungi not mentioned.

Bulgaria. Fourth National Report 2005-2008. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 15 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 18 times, plus mushroom (mentioned twice); fungi not consistently distinguished from plants, lichens (mentioned 3 times) listed as plants. Fungi explicitly included in national red listing. Need to improve informational resources about fungi acknowledged.

Denmark. Fourth Country Report to CBD, Denmark. Language. English. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 12 February 2010. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 21 times; generally recognized as distinct, but sometimes listed as plants; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (some recognition of threats); some fungal habitats recognized; some recognition of the knowledge gap.

Estonia. IV National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Estonia. Language. English. Date on report. 2008. Received by CBD. 5 December 2008. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 20 times and recognized as distinct from animals, micro-organisms, plants and from each other; some strategic consideration of fungal conservation (fungal and lichen red lists mentioned).

Finland. National Action Plan for Biodiversity in Finland, 1997-2005. Language. English. Date on report. 29 December 1997. Received by CBD. 29 December 1997. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times; clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 3 times.

Georgia. Second National Report of Georgia to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 6 May 2010. Received by CBD. 7 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mushroom (mentioned once); lichens mentioned once, listed separately from fungi; fungi and lichens distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants. Assistance from the European Mycological Association and European Council for Conservation of Fungi acknowledged.

Germany. Fourth National Report under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 30 March 2010. Received by CBD. 30 April 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times; distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants (but also listed in context of flora). Knowledge gap acknowledged for fungi.

Guyana. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 22 December 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times, plus lichen (mentioned once); lichen-forming species recognized as fungi; fungi recognized as separate from animals micro-organisms and and plants.

Ireland. Actions for Biodiversity 2011-2016. Ireland's National Biodiversity Plan. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 17 January 2012. Notes. Fungi and lichens each mentioned once, distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but listed separately from each other; a lichen red list in preparation for Ireland mentioned.

Ireland. 4th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 14 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 21 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once); generally distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 17 times; also generally distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but listed separately from fungi. A lichen red list in preparation for Ireland is mentioned.

Latvia. 4th National Report to the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 24 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 5 times, plus mushroom (mentioned once); clearly and consistently distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 5 times, as plants.

Liberia. Liberia’s Fourth National Report. Language. English. Date on report. None noted. Received by CBD. 9 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Montenegro. Fourth National Report of Montenegro to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 25 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times plus mushroom (mentioned 3 times) plus mycete (mentioned 5 times); fungi generally clearly distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants, although lichens (mentioned 4 times) sometimes listed with bryophytes. Important fungal areas mentioned. Legislation relating to fungal conservation mentioned.

Poland. The National Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 1 June 2009. Notes. Fungi and lichens mentioned; usually distinguished as separate, but sometimes treated as plants; some minimal consideration of threats; some awareness of the knowledge gap, and some minimal evidence of plans to address the problem.

Russia. [Fourth National Report. Conservation of Biological Diversity in the Russian Federation]. Language. Russian. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 9 November 2009. Notes. Fungi and lichens mentioned in total 28 times; listed separately from animals, plants and from each other.

Serbia. First National Report of the Republic of Serbia to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 30 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned six times plus mycete (mentioned once), and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned 4 times) recognized as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants, but not listed with fungi.

Serbia. Second National Report of the Republic of Serbia to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 30 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times, and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Serbia. Third National Report of the Republic of Serbia to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 30 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, and distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Suriname. National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) 2012-2016. Language. English. Date on report. February 2013. Received by CBD. 13 March 2013. Notes. Fungi twice and treated as different from animals and plants. View full Micheli Guide evaluation.

Switzerland. Swiss Biodiversity Strategy. Language. English. Date on report. 25 April 2012. Received by CBD. 2 May 2012. Notes. Fungi and lichens collectively mentioned 12 times; fungi treated as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens treated as distinct from fungi, micro-organisms and plants; existence of red lists for some fungi and for lichen-forming fungi provides some evidence of strategic consideration.

Switzerland. Switzerland’s Fourth National Report under the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 13 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 19 times, plus mushroom (3 times), treated as distinct from animals, micro-organisms and plants; lichens (mentioned 16 times) treated as distinct from fungi, micro-organisms and plants. Existence of red lists for some fungi and for lichen-forming fungi provides some evidence of strategic consideration.

UK. Biodiversity: the UK Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. January 1994. Received by CBD. 5 January 1998. Notes. This is the first national report for the UK. Fungi mentioned 18 times plus mushroom (mentioned once); generally treated as distinct from plants, but sometimes treated as micro-organisms; lichens (mentioned 14 times) not integrated with fungi; fungi (including lichen-forming species) clearly taken into account in planning; some recognition of different fungal categories present, but incomplete. [Top of page]

Seriously deficient

Description of category. Seriously deficient action plans and reports which mention fungi, but fail to recognize that they are distinct from other biological kingdoms and give no consideration to their particular conservation needs. Comment. This is currently the largest category. Almost 50% of all reports evaluated came into this group.

Albania. Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 31 March 2011. Received by CBD. 1 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times, but status not clear (mentioned once in context of flora), lichen (mentioned 1 time); lichen-forming fungi treated as separate from fungi; no evidence of separate planning.

Antigua and Barbuda. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. March 2010. Received by CBD. 6 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, as micro-organisms.

Argentina. Cuarto Informe Nacional. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 20 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichen-forming fungi mentioned five times.

Australia. Australia's Biodiversity Conservation Strategy 2010-2030. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 26 January 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, only as caption of one illustration.

Bangladesh. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4. Language. English. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 20 April 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 8 times, plus truffle (mentioned once). Fungi mentioned 4 times (once in title of bibliographic citation), listed as plants; lichens mentioned once, separately from fungi, listed as plants.

Belarus. Strategy on conservation and sustainable utilization of biological diversity for 2011-2020. Language. English. Date on report. 11 November 2010. Received by CBD. 6 January 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned. Separate status of mushrooms (2 mentions) not explicit and lichens (1 mention) treated as "lower plants".

Belgium. Fourth National Report of Belgium to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 5 October 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 18 times; treated as plants; some recognition of knowledge gap, but no plans to address the problem.

Bhutan. Biodiversity Action Plan 2009. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 4 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times (all in the context of the Cordyceps medicinal caterpillar fungus), and treated as plants; mushrooms mentioned 9 times; lichens mentioned once.

Brunei. 4th National Report. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 11 August 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, and recognized as distinct, but not consistently; some recognition of knowledge gap for fungi.

Burkina Faso. Convention sur la Diversité Biologique. Quatrième Report National. Language. French. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 16 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 5 times, plus mycete (mentioned once, as part of title in bibliographic list); sometimes treated as micro-organisms, sometimes as plants.

Chad. 4ème Rapport National sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. October 2009. Received by CBD. 8 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mycete (mentioned once), sometimes confused with plants; lichens mentioned twice, listed separately from fungi, sometimes confused with plants. Some recognition of knowledge gap for fungi.

Cook Islands. Cook Islands 4th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 8 April 2011. Received by CBD. 14 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice (as component of plant kingdom).

Cyprus. Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 7 September 2010. Notes. Mushrooms (mentioned twice); lichens (mentioned 3 times) listed under flora. Some recognition of knowledge gap.

Czech Republic. Fourth National Report of the Czech Republic to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 6 May 2009. Received by CBD. 7 May 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times; mostly treated as plants; some minimal recognition of threats and need for protection, but no plans to deal with them.

Denmark [Greenland]. Fourth National Report on the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity of Greenland. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 12 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once.

Dominican Republic. Cuarto Informe Nacional de Biodiversidad. República Dominicana. Language. Spanish. Date on report. February 2010. Received by CBD. 17 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times; listed as plants; lichens mentioned 7 times, listed separately from fungi, also as plants.

Ecuador. Segundo Informe Nacional para el Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. March 2009. Received by CBD. 17 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichens mentioned once, separately from fungi.

Ecuador. Tercer Informe Nacional para el Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. May 2009. Received by CBD. 17 February 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice (once as disease agents); lichens mentioned twice, separately from fungi, as plants.

Ecuador. Cuarto Informe Nacional para el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 31 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times (once with an unsubstantiated claim that their levels of endemism are lower in the Galapagos Islands, once in the context of animal disease), confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 7 times, listed as plants, separately from fungi.

El Salvador. Cuarto Informe al Convenio Sobre Diversidad Biológica El Salvador. Language. Spanish. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 30 March 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichen mentioned twice; separate status of fungi not explicit (animal and plant diversity each got their own whole section); lichens treated separately from fungi and as part of plant kingdom.

European Union. Fourth National Report of the European Community to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. May 2009. Received by CBD. 15 May 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice; no evidence of awareness that they might be different from animals or plants; no consideration of red lists, threats or fungal habitats; no acknowledgement of knowledge gap.

Fiji. Fiji’s Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 31 May 2010. Received by CBD. 8 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice; treated as plants.

France. National Biodiversity Strategy 2011-2020. Languages. English, French. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 20 May 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, but separate status of fungi not explicit.

FYROM. Four National Report of the Implementation of CBD in Republic of Macedonia (2006-2008). Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 26 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice; lichen mentioned once, separately from fungi; both listed separately from animals, micro-organisms and plants.

Georgia. Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity: Georgia. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 30 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice, plus mushroom (mentioned twice), listed as plants; lichens mentioned twice, listed separately from fungi, also as plants.

Georgia. Third National Report of Georgia to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 6 May 2010. Received by CBD. 7 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 5 times (twice in the context of quarantine or disease control), listed as “lower plants”; lichens mentioned three times, listed separately from fungi, also as “lower plants”. Knowledge gap acknowledged for lichens. Cybertruffle website cited.

Greece. Untitled. Language. English. Date on report. 7 April 2008. Received by CBD. 8 April 2008. Notes. Lichens mentioned once; no indication of any understanding of their status.

Guyana. Guyana's Third National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2004-2006. Received by CBD. 19 May 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, but separate status of fungi not explicit.

Hungary. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Hungary. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 8 June 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 6 times, and clearly and consistently distinguished from animals and plants, but also treated as distinct from each other.

Italy. La Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità. Language. Italian. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 22 December 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, plus lichen (mentioned 3 times); lichen-forming species listed separately from fungi, and both included in "flora".

Kazakhstan. The Fourth National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English, Russian. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 8 July 2010. Notes. Mushrooms mentioned 4 times, treated as plants; lichens (mentioned 4 times), also treated as plants; 16 fungi (13 of them lichen-forming) included in plant red list.

Laos. National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and Action Plan to 2010. Language. English. Date on report. 2004. Received by CBD. 17 January 2006. Notes. Fungi mentioned very generally four times (twice as fungi, twice as mushrooms), and confused with plants.

Liechtenstein. 4th National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Principality of Liechtenstein. Language. English. Date on report. December 2009. Received by CBD. 10 March 2010. Notes. Mushrooms mentioned 3 times; some evidence that they are considered separate from plants; some evidence that there is interest in their protection.

Malawi. Fourth Country Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Language. English. Date on report. 30 June 2010. Received by CBD. 3 September 2010. Notes. Mushrooms (mentioned 7 times), principally as an exploitable resource.

Maldives. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 27 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned twice.

Malta. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 2 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned once, listed as "lower plants".

Moldova. Fourth National Report on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 16 June 2009. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times (as “mushrooms”), largely in the context of harvesting, and treated as plants; lichens mentioned once, and treated as plants.

Mozambique. 4th National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. June 2009. Received by CBD. 14 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; treated as plants.

Namibia. Namibia’s Draft Fourth Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 15 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichens mentioned 12 times; sometimes treated as plants, treated alongside insects, arachnids, amphibians and reptiles.

Nepal. Nepal Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. March 2009. Received by CBD. 12 April 2012. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times; lichens mentioned 11 times; in every case treated as plants; conservation and documentation of lichens listed as one target, but no evidence of any activity to achieve that target.

Netherlands. Convention on Biological Diversity. Fourth National Report of the Netherlands. Language. English. Date on report. April 2010. Received by CBD. 14 April 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times (but only “macrofungi”), and listed as plants; lichens mentioned 3 times, separately from fungi, and also listed as plants.

New Zealand. New Zealand’s Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Reporting Period May 2005 - March 2009. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 10 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 11 times (several times in the context of introduced diseases); not consistently treated as separate from plants; lichens mentioned once, separately from fungi; treated as plants.

Nigeria. Fourth National Biodiversity Report. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 10 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mushroom (mentioned once); treated as plants; lichens mentioned once, treated separately from fungi, also as plants.

Norway. Untitled. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 24 April 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 11 times. Fungi mentioned, but only in the context of forest tree disease or (as “mushrooms”) in the context of sustainable harvesting; lichens mentioned in the context of pollution monitoring.

Oman. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. June 2010. Received by CBD. 26 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times; treated as plants.

Panama. IV Informe Nacional de Panamá ante el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 3 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times; lichens mentioned 3 times; both listed as plants.

Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea’s Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 21 July 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; treated as plants.

Portugal. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 29 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, plus mushroom (once); lichen-forming fungi mentioned once, described as plants.

Romania. Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 17 July 2009. Received by CBD. 5 October 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 5 times, but treated as plants.

Seychelles. Third National Report to the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). Language. English. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 5 March 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (Verticillium also mentioned, as agent of disease), separately from animals and plants; lichens mentioned once, as plants.

Singapore. 4th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 1 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 3 times; lichen mentioned once. Fungi distinguished from animals, micro-organisms and (but not consistently) plants.

Slovakia. The Fourth National Report on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Slovak Republic. Language. English. Date on report. March 2009. Received by CBD. 30 September 2009. Notes. Fungi (including lichens) mentioned 26 times, but treated as plants; some acknowledgement of knowledge gap, but not plans to address it.

Slovenia. Convention on Biological Diversity 4th National Report on implementation. Republic of Slovenia. Language. English. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 7 April 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned 9 times plus mycete (mentioned once), with some indication of being taken into account in plans, but status not clear (mentioned more than once as part of plant kingdom, and once as microbial life).

Tanzania. National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. August 2001. Received by CBD. 12 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, plus mushroom (3 times); status of fungi confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichen-forming fungi not mentioned.

Tonga. Fourth Report. Review of Tonga National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 28 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 4 times (once as undesirable disease, once as fungicide); treated as plants.

Turkey. UN Convention on Biological Diversity Fourth National Report. Language. English. Date on report. 30 June 2009. Received by CBD. 28 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; lichen-forming fungi mentioned three times, described as plants.

UK. The United Kingdom National Report on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 16 January 1998. Notes. This is the first national report for the UK. Fungi mentioned 4 times; sometimes treated as micro-organisms; lichens (mentioned 7 times) treated as “lower plants” and not integrated with fungi.

Ukraine. National Report of Ukraine on Conservation of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 1997. Received by CBD. 4 July 1997. Notes. Fungi mentioned 17 times plus mushroom (mentioned twice) plus mycete (mentioned twice, in context of myxomycetes); sometimes treated separately, sometimes treated as plants, and sometimes as micro-organisms; lichens (mentioned 6 times) treated as plants and not integrated with fungi.

Ukraine. Third National Report. Language. English. Date on report. 25 April 2007. Received by CBD. 26 April 2007. Notes. Fungi mentioned once; treated as micro-organisms.

Ukraine. [Convention of Biological Diversity. Fourth National Report of Ukraine]. Language. Russian. Date on report. 2010. Received by CBD. 9 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned 7 times, confused with micro-organisms and plants; lichens mentioned 4 times, listed separately from fungi, confused with plants.

Zambia. Fourth National Report. Language. Spanish. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 17 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once, as plants.

Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe’s Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. December 2010. Received by CBD. 16 December 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned; mushrooms mentioned 3 times, but treated as plants. [Top of page]

Totally deficient

Description of category. Totally deficient action plans and reports which completely fail to mention fungi. Comment. Shockingly, this is the second largest category. Thirty reports (almost 25% of all reports evaluated) came into this group.

Bahamas. Fourth National Biodiversity Report of the Bahamas to the UNCBD. Language. English. Date on report. June 2011. Received by CBD. 11 August 2011. Notes. Fungi mentioned one time, as a disease threat to agricultural ecosystems.

Bahrain. The Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. Arabic. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 17 March 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Belize. 4th National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. May 2010. Received by CBD. 10 August 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Central African Republic. 4ème Rapport National à la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 7 May 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned three times, all in the context of exploitable resources.

Colombia. Cuarto Informe Nacional ante el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 15 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (in the context of agents of biological control), lichen (mentioned once, in title of bibliographic citation).

Guyana. Guyana's Second National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 1999-2003. Received by CBD. 19 May 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Iceland. Second National Report of Iceland to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 10 March 2003. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Iraq. Iraqi Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. July 2010. Received by CBD. 27 July 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Islamic Republic of Iran. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. October 2010. Received by CBD. 14 June 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned; fungicides mentioned once.

Israel. Israel’s National Biodiversity Plan. Language. English, Hebrew. Date on report. January 2010. Received by CBD. 31 March 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Jamaica. Third National Report for Jamaica. 2003-2004. Language. English. Date on report. December 2009. Received by CBD. 17 May 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Kuwait. The National Biodiversity Strategy for the State of Kuwait. Language. Arabic, English. Date on report. 1998. Received by CBD. 6 June 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Laos. NBSAP Assessment: an assessment of the Lao PDR’s National Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and Action Plan to 2010. Language. English. Date on report. 2011. Received by CBD. 25 September 2012. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Laos. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. September 2010. Received by CBD. 11 September 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Luxembourg. Quatrième Rapport National de la Convention de la Diversité Biologique du Grand Duché de Luxembourg. Language. French. Date on report. November 2009. Received by CBD. 9 December 2009. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Mauritania. Stratégie et Plan d'Action National sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. 1999. Received by CBD. 15 April 2000. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Mauritius. Fourth National Report on the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 13 September 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (in context of biological control).

Micronesia. Federated States of Micronesia Fourth National Report. Implementation of Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 22 June 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Monaco. Quatrième Rapport National de la Convention sur la Diversité Biologique. Language. French. Date on report. 29 October 2009. Received by CBD. 30 October 2009. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Nicaragua. IV Informe Nacional al Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. 30 June 2010. Received by CBD. 3 September 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Palau. Third National Report. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 10 February 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

St Lucia. St Lucia’s Fourth Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2009. Received by CBD. 26 June 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (as fungicide).

St Vincent and the Grenadines. The Fourth National Biodiversity Report of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to the UNCBD. Language. English. Date on report. March 2010. Received by CBD. 17 April 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Solomon Islands. National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan. Language. English. Date on report. June 2009. Received by CBD. 19 April 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Solomon Islands. Government of Solomon Islands Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. 2011. Received by CBD. 25 July 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Spain. Plan Estratégico del Patrimonio Natural y la Biodiversidad 2011-2017. Language. Spanish. Date on report. 30 September 2011. Received by CBD. 30 January 2012. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Sri Lanka. First National Report on the Implementation of Article 6 of the Convention of Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 30 December 1997. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Tanzania. Fourth National Report on Implementation of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Language. English. Date on report. July 2009. Received by CBD. 6 March 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Trinidad and Tobago. Fourth National Report of Trinidad and Tobago to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Language. English. Date on report. None found. Received by CBD. 15 October 2010. Notes. Fungi mentioned once (part of title of work in bibliographic reference about amphibian disease).

Uruguay. IV Informe Nacional al Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 13 September 2010. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Venezuela. Cuarto Informe Nacional Convenio de Diversidad Biológica de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Language. Spanish. Date on report. February 2011. Received by CBD. 8 April 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned.

Venezuela. Estrategia Nacional para la Conservación de la Diversidad Biológica de la República Boliveriana de Venezuela. Language. Spanish. Date on report. August 2010. Received by CBD. 1 April 2011. Notes. Fungi not mentioned. [Top of page]


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